Turkmenistan Country Overview
Where is Turkmenistan located? Turkmenistan is a country located in Central Asia, completely surrounded by other countries. The time zone map places Turkmenistan in a time zone called Turkmenistan Time, which has a time offset of 5 hours from Coordinated Universal Time. This means that clocks in Turkmenistan are 5 hours later than universal time (UTC+5). This standard difference also remains in place during the summer months, since there is no changeover to daylight saving time.
Bordering Countries of Turkmenistan
According to abbreviationfinder, Turkmenistan is a Central Asian country located in the heart of the region and bordered by five other countries. To the north lies Uzbekistan, to the east lies Kazakhstan, while to the south lies Iran. Further west is Afghanistan, while to the northwest lies the Caspian Sea.
Turkmenistan has a long history of trade and cultural exchanges with its neighbouring countries due to its strategic location at the crossroads of Asia and Europe. This has led to strong cultural ties between Turkmenistan and its neighbours as well as strong political cooperation in recent years. In addition, Turkmenistan also has strong economic ties with its bordering countries due to its vast natural resources such as oil, gas, and minerals which have attracted foreign investment.
The relationship between Turkmenistan and its neighbours is complex but largely peaceful despite occasional disputes over matters such as water resources or border issues. In recent years there have been efforts by both sides to improve relations as well as increased trade between them for mutual benefit. For example, Turkmenistan has signed several free trade agreements with neighbouring countries that have helped boost economic growth in both nations. Furthermore, there have been efforts by all sides to promote regional stability through joint military exercises or peacekeeping operations in conflict zones such as Afghanistan or Iraq.
As of 2023, the latest population of Turkmenistan is 5,528,627, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).
|Population growth rate
|19.10 births per 1,000 people
|Overall life expectancy
|Men life expectancy
|Women life expectancy
|65 years and above
|Gender ratio (Male to Female)
|11.33 residents per km²
|86% Turkmens, 6% Uzbeks, 5% Russians; Minorities of Kazakhs, Tatars, Ukrainians, Azerbaijanis, Armenians, Belarusians and others
|Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
|Human Development Index (HDI)
|108th out of 194
People in Turkmenistan
More than five million people live in Turkmenistan. Most of them, around 80 percent of the population, are Turkmen, after whom the state is named. Turkmenistan means “home of the Turkmen”.
It is particularly important for a Turkmen to which Turkmen tribe he belongs. Depending on the tribe, the Turkmens also wear different clothes and speak a different dialect. Traditionally, the tribes can be distinguished by their carpet pattern (see Typical Turkmenistan). The most powerful tribe in politics is the Akhal-Teke. The other main tribes are called Yomut, Ersari, Chowdur and Saryk.
In addition to Turkmen, Uzbeks (9 percent) and Russians (7 percent) also live in the country. Other small minorities are Kazakhs, Tatars, Azerbaijanis, Baluch and Armenians. Incidentally, Turkmen live not only in Turkmenistan, but also in Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Russia.
Half of the population lives in a city. The biggest cities are Ashgabat, Türkmenabat, Daşoguz and Mary. Every woman in Turkmenistan has an average of 2.04 children.
Languages in Turkmenistan
The official language in Turkmenistan is Turkmen. Russian is spoken by many residents as a second language. The minorities in the country speak their own languages such as Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian or Azerbaijani.
Turkmen is a Turkic language. There are around 40 Turkic languages, with Turkish having the most speakers among them. Turkmen itself has numerous dialects. Until 1928, Turkmen was written using the Arabic alphabet, then Latin letters were used, and from 1940 to 1991 Cyrillic script (which is used to write Russian).
With the end of the Soviet era, the Latin alphabet was reintroduced, supplemented by a few more letters that we do not use in German. These include ç (spoken ch), ž (spoken like the second g in Gara g e), ň (spoken roughly like ng in Di ng), ş (spoken sch) and ý (spoken like our j).
Religions in Turkmenistan
89 out of 100 residents of Turkmenistan are Muslims. 9 percent belong to the Russian Orthodox Church. First of all, these are the Russians who live in the country. Small minorities are Jews or Catholics or belong to a Protestant free church.
While every religion was suppressed in Soviet times and only four mosques were open in the country, Islam has seen a new influx since independence. Today there are around 400 mosques.