Afghanistan Country Overview
Where is Afghanistan located? Afghanistan, which is officially also called ”Islamic Republic of Afghanistan”, is located in South Asia and therefore in a different time zone than Germany. The world clock shows that Afghanistan is always 3.5 hours ahead of German time, and thus 4.5 hours ahead of world time. In addition, there is no time change in summer in the part of the time zone map where Afghanistan can be found.
Bordering Countries of Afghanistan
According to abbreviationfinder, Afghanistan is a landlocked country bordered by a total of seven countries. To the north is Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. To the west is Iran, to the south and east is Pakistan, and to the northeast is China. Each of these countries has played an important role in Afghanistan’s history and politics.
Turkmenistan shares a 744 km long border with Afghanistan and has historically been an important trade partner with Afghanistan due to its location on the Silk Road. Uzbekistan shares a 137 km long border with Afghanistan and has had a long history of cultural exchange as well as political and economic ties between the two countries. Tajikistan shares an 870 km long border with Afghanistan and has been an ally in providing development assistance to Afghanistan.
Iran has had an especially close relationship with Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001; it shares a 936 km long border with Afghanistan, making it one of its longest borders. Iran provides economic aid to help rebuild infrastructure destroyed by war, including roads, electricity lines, schools, bridges, etc., as well as humanitarian aid for Afghan refugees living in Iran.
Pakistan also shares a close relationship with Afghanistan; it has a 2,430 km long border with its neighbor to the west and provides critical access to ports for Afghan exports. The two countries share deep cultural ties that have remained despite political tensions over borders, terrorism issues, refugee problems etc., which have at times caused tensions between them both economically and politically.
Finally, China shares an 87 km long border with Afghanistan along their mutual mountain ranges known as the Hindu Kush mountains; this region was historically part of China’s Silk Road trading network which connected China to Europe via Central Asia and provided important trade links between these regions for centuries. In recent years China has become increasingly involved in Afghan affairs through investments in infrastructure projects such as roads or power plants that benefit both countries economically while also strengthening diplomatic ties between them both politically and culturally.
As of 2023, the latest population of Afghanistan is 39,510,885, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).
|Population growth rate
|37.90 births per 1,000 people
|Overall life expectancy
|Men life expectancy
|Women life expectancy
|65 years and above
|Gender ratio (Male to Female)
|56.18 residents per km²
|42% Pashtuns, 27% Tajiks, 9% Hazara, 9% Uzbeks; also Aimak, Nuristani, Balutschen, Turkmen, Kyrgyz and others
|Muslims (Sunnis 80%, Shiites 19%), members of other religious communities 1%
|Human Development Index (HDI)
|170th out of 194
People in Afghanistan
Afghanistan is a multi-ethnic state, as the residents are made up of different ethnic groups and languages. Afghanistan has always been a transit country for many people: Warriors, traders and later also missionaries came. The Pashtuns make up the largest proportion in Afghanistan, they are the largest population group in the country. This is followed by the Tajiks. At least 25 out of 100 residents are among them, they speak Persian. Hesors and Uzbeks as well as other minorities also live in Afghanistan. The Hesors also speak Persian, but are largely Shiitesand are often persecuted in Afghanistan. Different languages and cultures were able to survive for a long time in the inaccessible mountain regions of Afghanistan. There are many other smaller groups that also live in Afghanistan.
Where do the people live in Afghanistan?
Afghanistan means something like “Land of Afghans”. The country has about 38 million residents. Most of the people live in the river oases on the edges of the central mountain region, in cities called Herat, Kandahar, Mazar-e Sharif or Kunduz. Many residents also live in the basin landscape in the east of the country, in the capital Kabul. This is where the population density is highest. That means that most people live there per square kilometer. People mainly go to these places because there are areas for agriculture. Many live from this agriculture. There are far fewer people in the central highlands. In Afghanistan, most of the people live in rural areas and only a small proportion live in cities.
Languages in Afghanistan
Not only do many people of different origins live together in Afghanistan, they also speak many languages. A distinction is made between almost 50 languages and more than 200 dialects. Persian and Pashto are the official languages. Pashto is the language of the Pashtuns and is spoken by many people in addition to Persian. You can see the exact distribution on the map above.
Religions in Afghanistan
Most of the people in Afghanistan are Muslim, most of them Sunnis and only a small number of them Shiites.