Scotland has about 5.3 million residents.
The majority of Scotland’s population is Scots (88.1%), followed by other groups from the United Kingdom (7.4%), Irish (1%), Pakistanis (0.6%), Chinese (0.3 %) and Indians (0.3%).
affiliation 2.1 million presbyters (Church of Scotland); 1.4 million without religious affiliation; 0.8 million Catholics, 0.3 million, other Christian churches, 0.04 million Muslims.
The official language is English, there is also Welsh, Scottish as independent languages and also taught in schools, as well as a few Gaelic.
Capital, other cities
The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh with around 485,000 residents.
Other larger cities are:
- Glasgow with around 629,500 residents
- Aberdeen with approx. 185,000 residents
- Dundee with approx. 155,000 residents
- Paisley with about 74,000 residents
- East Kilbride with about 74,000 residents
- Hamilton with about 49,000 residents
- Cumbernauld with about 50,000 residents
- Ayr with around 47,000 residents
- Greenock with about 45,000 residents
Architects and builders
Robert Lorimer (1864 – 1929)
The Scottish architect is known for numerous restorations of historical buildings and castles in his homeland.
Robert Adam (1728 – 1792) was Scotland’s most famous architect and known for his decorative detail work on stately homes and castles such as Culzean Castle in the Scottish lowlands
James Craig (1744-1795) was a Scottish architect whose career focused almost entirely on the city of Edinburgh. He made the plans for the New Town, the new town of Edinburgh; at that time the exceptional architect was only 26 years old.
David Hamilton (1768 – 1853)
The Glasgow architect was called “Father of the Profession”. His most important works include Hutchesons’ Hall, the Nelson Monument in Glasgow Green and Lennox Castle.
Alexander Thomson (1817 – 1875)
Alexander “Greek” Thomson was one of the great architects of Glasgow. He developed his own classical style, which earned him the nickname “Greek”. He combined elements from ancient Greece as well as from Egypt and Syria. His works in Glasgow include Holmwood House and St. Vincent Street Church.
Scotland: visual artists
Peter Doig (born 1959)
Doig, who was born in Edinburgh, is now one of the most important and expensive painters of our time. He has lived in Trinidad with his five children and his wife since 2002 and has been teaching at the Düsseldorf Art School since 2005.
James Gillespie Graham (1776 – 1855) was a Scottish architect who became famous primarily for his Scottish Gothic style. He built Cambusnethan House or Priory and St. Andrew’s Roman Catholic Cathedral in Glasgow.
Herbert McNair (1868 – 1955)
The Scottish artist, designer and teacher contributed with his work to the development of the “Glasgow Style” in the 1890s. Together with Charles Rennie Mackintosh he attended the Glasgow School of Art; there the two met the MacDonald sisters Frances and Margaret, who they would later marry.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868 – 1928)
The innovative style of the Glasgow-born architect made a decisive contribution to European Art Nouveau. This very personal style can be found in three types of buildings, namely public buildings, private homes and tea rooms, most of which are in Glasgow. Mackintosh also designed unique furniture, which can be seen today, for example, in the Mackintosh House, the Hunterian Art Gallery or the Glasgow School of Art. Mackintosh founded the so-called Glasgow style together with his wife Margaret, their sister Frances and Herbert McNair.
The Scottish kings
Kenneth I. Mac Alpin (810-859)
He was originally the king of the small kingdom of the Scots, a Celtic tribe that originally came from Ireland and later settled in mid-west Scotland. In 843 he defeated the Picts and united his kingdom with their territory. The Picts were tribes or clans in Scotland who got their name from the Romans. Kenneth Mac Alpin was the first King of Scotland, whose name goes back to him. His coronation as the common king of the Scots and Picts took place in 843 on the legendary Stone of Scone.
Donald I (812-863), King of Scotland from 858 until his death
Constantine I (836-877), King of Scotland from 863 until his death
Aedh (840-878), King of Scotland from 877 until his death
Eochaid (-889), King of Scotland from 878 until his death, he ruled the entire time with his cousin Giric
Donald II (-900), King of Scotland from 889 until his death
Constantine II (874-952), King of Scotland from 900 until his abdication in 942
Malcolm I (-954), King of Scotland – after the abdication of Constantine II – from 942 until his death
Indulf (-962), King of Scotland from 952 until his death
Dubh (-967), King of Scotland from 962 until his death
Culen also: Cuilean (-971), King of Scotland from 967 until his death
Kenneth II.(-995), King of Scotland from 971 until his death
Constantine III. (-997), King of Scotland from 995 until his death,
Kenneth III. (-1005), King of Scotland from 997 until his death
Malcom II. (954-1034), King of Scotland from 1005 until his death
Duncan I (1001-1040), King of Scotland from 1034 until his death
Macbeth (1005 -1057), King of Scotland from 1040 until his death
Lulach of Moray (1029-1058), King of Scotland from 1057 until his death
Malcolm II (1030-1093), King of Scotland from 1057 to his death. Margaret the Holy (1044-1093) was his wife
Donald III.(1033-1099), King of Scotland from 1093 to 1094 and from 1094 to 1097
Duncan II (1060-1094), King of Scotland for around 1/2 year in 1094 until his death
Edgar (1074-1107), King of Scotland from 1097 until his death
Alexander I (1078-1124), King of Scotland from 1107 until his death
David I (1080-1153), King of Scotland from 1124 until his death
Malcolm IV (1142-1165), King of Scotland from 1153 until his death
William I the Lion (1143-1214), King of Scotland from 1165 until his death
Alexander II (1198-1249), King of Scotland from 1214 until his death
Alexander III(1241-1286), King of Scotland from 1249 until his death
Margaret (1283-1290), child queen from Norway, ruled from 1286 until her untimely death. She was referred to as the Virgin of Norway
Johann Balliol (1240-1313), King of Scotland from 1292 to 1296. The Scottish Wars of Independence began under him. In 1296 King Edward I of England forced him to abdicate and placed Scotland under direct English administration.
Eduard Balliol (-1356)
Robert I (1274-1329), King of Scotland from 1306 until his death
David II (1324–1371), King of Scotland from 1329 until his death
Robert II (1316-1390), King of Scotland from 1371 until his death
Robert III (1340-1406), King of Scotland from 1390 until his death
James I, (1394-1437), King of Scotland from 1406 until his death
James II (1430-1460), King of Scotland from 1437 until his Death
Jacob III: (1451-1488), King of Scotland from 1460 until his death
Jacob IV (1473-1513), King of Scotland from 1488 until his death
Jacob V (1512-1542), King of Scotland from 1523 until his death
Maria Stuart (1542-1587), Queen of Scotland from 1542-1567, daughter of James V, executed by Elizabeth I (1533-1603)
James VI.(1566-1625), he became King of Scotland in 1657 and King James I of England, Ireland and Scotland in 1603
Charles I (1600-1649), he was King of England, Ireland and Scotland
Charles II from 1625 (1630 -1685), King of England, Scotland and Ireland
James II (1633-1701), as James (Jacob) VII. King of Scotland and since 1685 King of England, Scotland and Ireland
William III. of Orange (1650-1702) King of England, Scotland and Ireland
Anne Stuart (1665-1714), became the first ruler of Great Britain on May 1, 1707 after the unification of England and Scotland in 1707.